inverse kinematics, dynamics - force vector, rotation

The key feature of scientific gait analysis is the precision and complexity of data rather than its suitability for routine daily use; a factor which has greater importance in clinical analysis. In an attempt to determine the most extensive and precise picture possible of the gait cycle, scientists have created complex biomechanical models through the use of a multitude of cameras and synchronised equipment. These methods often have a considerably greater time requirement than the clinical analysis method, but are critical in complex scientific analyses and very complicated clinical cases.

 

The analysis follows the model of Rancho Los Angeles (J.Perry) and divides the gait cycle into eight phases. This allows function and deviations to be determined for every phase and a well-grounded course of action to be established in therapy for examining kinematics and muscle activation.

Inman, Sutherland and Perry have systematically analysed human gait for decades. The increased use of technical support in practice has allowed more and more people to benefit from analyses (Gage, 1993).

 

Pathological changes affect the efficiency of gait and muscle enforcement. When one structure or muscle isn't working normal sufferers often try to sustain normality through altering the actions of other muscles or structures to compensate. As a consequence, differentiated movement patterns appear, as normal and abnormal movements combine under different loads.

 

In general, a number of therapeutic measures are available to limit the extent of an injury and the resultant impairment to ambulation. Amendatory measures can only be uncovered and restored to normal if the primary problem can be localised and treated. Compensatory deficits and impairments are however often more striking than the underlying cause. So it is imperative that all movement patterns are recognized and taken under consideration when patients are examined. Technology in this mean helps to make all details visible for diagnostic.

 

Systematic gait analysis is made up of three steps:

  1. Structuring of information,
  2. Observation of a strict pre-assigned procedure
  3. Plan for the interpretation of data.

 

In examination, the following factors must be taken into account:

  • Kinematics define the area and the course of time of each joint movement. The hip, knee, and ankle joints are often the focus of investigation in both the sagital plane and frontal.
  • Kinetics provide information about ground reaction forces, and forces which are translated through the body and joints. Moments about joints which occur as a result of body weight can often provide vital information.
  • Dynamic electromyography (EMG) provides information about the activation and intensity of muscle contractions.

Simi Motion is characterized by the diverse possibilities it offers in 2D and 3D cinematography, as well as through its ability to integrate data from external measurement devices, such as EMG and force plates. Simi Motion has extensive capabilities in the filtering and editing of data and is our premium product, with numerous configurations possible. The analysis of data in Simi Motion can be quite complex and appropriate time for data analysis as required user skills should be considered.

  • inverse kinematics report 1
  • inverse kinematics report 2

A minimum of six high speed cameras should be used in scientific gait analysis. These synchronise to chart the gait of patients and analyse joint movements in three dimensions. In addition, EMG and force plate data can be synchronised and displayed so that kinematic data, reaction forces, joint moments and muscle activation can be analysed together.

 

In order to achieve a more extensive kinematic database, multiple marker sets can be placed upon the patient. The marker model complies with a specific biomechanical model which can be computed with in situ joint coordination systems, as well as inverse dynamics calculations. Data incorporation and analysis can be adjusted and configured according to your specific requirements as individual advice and planning is an integral component in the design of a scientific gait analysis laboratory.

 

Gait forms the basis of human movement patterns and the complexity of this procedure ensues in its practical application. There are 4 fundamental ways in which it can be measured.

  • Kinematics define the area and the course of time of each joint movement. The hip, knee, and ankle joints are often the focus of investigation in sagital, coronal and transversal plane.
  • Kinetics provide information about ground reaction forces, and forces which are translated through the body and joints. Moments about joints which occur as a result of body weight can often provide vital information.
  • Dynamic electromyography (EMG) provides information about the activation and intensity of muscle contractions.
  • Gait efficiency can be determined through the measurement of energy use. Those who suffer from problems with their gait and posture require more energy to walk.

 

 

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